This was the omer, mentioned in Leviticus 23:10-14 (Menachoth 68b, 84a; Yad, Temidim 7:12; Rashi).
|as soon as it ripens...|
(Radak, Sherashim; Hirsch). Aviv in Hebrew. Some say that it denotes barley (Menachoth 61b; cf. Exodus 9:31), especially when it is ripe enough to be eaten (Saadia; Ibn Janach). According to others, it refers to the early grain (Rashi, Menachoth 66a, s.v. aviv). Still others maintain that it denotes grain roasted in a perforated vessel (Targum Yonathan; cf. Menachoth 66a; Yad, Tamidim 7:22).
Karmel in Hebrew. (Menachoth 84a; see Rashi, Menachoth 64b, s.v. Karmel; Yad, Temidim 7:9). These were grains that were not yet dry and hard (Menachoth 66b; Rashi; Radak, Sherashim).
(see Yad, Temidim 7:11; see earlier notes).
(Menachoth 66b; Rashi; Yad, Temidim 7:12). Kaluy in Hebrew.
(Menachoth 66b; Yad, Temidim 7:12).
|ground into coarse meal|
(Rashi 66a, s.v. Ve-gerusaoth;) or 'cracked grains' (Saadia; Radak, Sherashim; Ibn Janach). This was the best grade of barley meal, equivalent to soleth made of wheat (Rashi, Menachoth 66a, s.v. Shel Gerosoth, 27a s.v. Geresh, 69b s.v. Ve-Lo; Sotah 14a).