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Shemini

  
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 11:15  11:16
 11:17  11:18
 11:19
 11:20
11:18 the swan, the pelican, the magpie,
Ve'et-hatinshemet ve'et-haka'at ve'et-haracham.
11:19 the stork, the heron family, the hoopoe, and the bat.
Ve'et hachasidah ha'anafah leminah ve'et-haduchifat ve'et-ha'atalef.
11:20 Every flying insect that uses four legs for walking shall be avoided by you.
Kol sherets ha'of haholech al-arba shekets hu lachem.



Commentary:

swan
  Tinshemeth in Hebrew; kuknos in Greek; cycnus in Latin. Other sources identify it as a bat, chauve-souris in French (Rashi; Chizzkuni). Still others say that it is a kind of owl, chouette in French (Rashi, Chullin 63a); suetta in Old Spanish (Radak, Sherashim; Ralbag). This is thought to be the barn screech owl (Tyto alba).

pelican
  Ka'ath in Hebrew; pelekon in Greek; kuk in Arabic and Aramaic (Chullin 63a; Saadia; Radak, Sherashim). Also given as kik in Aramaic (Shabbath 21a), which is identified as a water bird (Arukh). However, some challenge this, since the ka'ath is seen as living in the desert (Psalms 120:7) and inhabiting ruins (Isaiah 34:11, Zechariah 2:14) (Ibn Janach). It is also seen as a bird that vomits up its prey (Chizzkuni; Toledoth Yitzchak), and this description fits the little desert owl (Athena noctua saharae).

magpie
  or pie (Chizzkuni). Racham in Hebrew; rachamah in Deuteronomy 14:17 porphorion in Greek. Some sources identify it with the Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), rakham in Arabic (Saadia). This is the smallest vulture in the Holy Land, and it flocks on carrion and eats insects.

stork
  Chasidah in Hebrew; asida in Septuagint; cigogne in French (Rashi; Chizzkuni; cf. Teshuvoth HaRosh 20:20). It is a bird that is known to live in juniper trees in Lebanon (cf. Psalms 104:17). According to some authorities, however, the chasida is not the stork, because the stork is a kosher bird (Rabbenu Yerocham, Toledoth Adam VeChavah 15:21, 132b).

heron
  (Rashi; Chizzkuni). Anapha in Hebrew; cheradrois in Greek.

hoopoe
  Dukhiphath in Hebrew; epops in Greek; upupa in Latin. The hoopoe is a bird with a large red and black crest, possibly cresta in Spanish (Toledoth Yitzchak) and harupa in Old French (Rashi; Chizzkuni); hadhad in Arabic (Saadia). It may also be identified with the mountain cock or capercaillie, the largest member of the grouse family (cf. Rashi, Chullin 63a, who translates it as puaon chalbia).

bat
  Atalef in Hebrew; nukteris in Greek; khepash in Arabic (Saadia); grot in Old French (Chizzkuni). However, see note on tinshemeth.

flying insect
  (Rashi; Ramban; cf. Makkoth 16b). Sheretz ha-of in Hebrew.

that uses four legs for walking
  Or, 'that walks like a quadruped.' Insects have six legs, but members of the grasshopper family use four for walking and two for hopping (cf. Ezrath Kohanim on Sifra).





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