||When I responded to them, 'Who has gold?' they took it off and gave it to me. I threw the gold into the fire and the result was this calf.'
Va'omar lahem lemi zahav hitparaku vayitnu-li va'ashlichehu va'esh vayetse ha'egel hazeh.
||Moses realized that the people had actually been restrained. Aaron had restrained them, doing only a small part of what the outspoken ones [had demanded].
Vayar Moshe et-ha'am ki farua hu ki-fera'oh Aharon leshimtsah bekameyhem.
||Moses stood up at the camp's entrance and announced, 'Whoever is for God, join me!' All the Levites gathered around him.
Vaya'amod Moshe besha'ar hamachaneh vayomer mi l'Adonay elay vaye'asfu elav kol-beney Levi.
(Ralbag). Or, 'exposed' (Rashi; Sforno; Ibn Janach); 'exposed to harm' (Abarbanel); 'undisciplined' (Rashbam; Chizzkuni); 'unrestrained' (Hirsch); 'going the wrong way' (Ibn Janach; Radak, Sherashim).
|doing only a small part|
(Ralbag; Hirsch; cf. Shabbath 119a). Or, 'so as to be derided' (Radak, Sherashim; Rashi).
(Ralbag; Hirsch). Or, 'enemies' (Rashi; Ibn Ezra; Radak, Sherashim to 7).
(Ralbag). Or, 'Moses saw that the people had been exposed; for Aaron had exposed them and they could be the subject of derision to their enemies' (Rashi). Or, 'Moses saw that the people were unrestrained, since Aaron had shown their lack of restraint to some degree when they stood up against him' (Hirsch). Or, 'Moses saw that the people were going the wrong way, because Aaron had allowed them to revert...' (Ibn Janach; Radak, Sherashim).