||'Judah, your brothers shall submit (yodu) to you. Your hand shall be on your enemies' necks; your father's sons shall bow to you.
Yehudah atah yoducha acheycha yadecha be'oref oyveycha yishtachavu lecha bney avicha.
||'Young lion, Judah, you have risen from prey, my son. He crouches, lies like a lion, like an awesome lion, who will dare rouse him?
Gur aryeh Yehudah miteref beni alita kara ravats ke'aryeh uchelavi mi yekimenu.
||'The scepter will not depart from Judah, nor legislation from his descendants. Nations will submit to him until the final tranquility comes.
Lo-yasur shevet mi-Yehudah umechokek mibeyn raglav ad ki-yavo shiloh velo yikhat amim.
||'He loads down his donkey with a [single] grapevine, his young donkey with a single vine branch. He even washes his clothes in wine, his cloak in the blood of grapes.
Osri lagefen iroh velasorekah beni atono kibes bayayin levusho uvedam anavim sutoh.
(Rashbam; Sforno). Or 'praise' (Rashi; Ibn Ezra; Ralbag).
See Avoth deRabbi Nathan B 43. Cf. Hirsch. See Numbers 24:9.
(Sh'muel ben Chofni; Radak; Ralbag; cf. Psalms 60:9, 105:9). The Hebrew me-chokek has the connotation of both law and writing. Hence, others translate it as 'the scribe's pen' (Sekhel Tov; Ibn Ezra); 'the scribe' (Bereshith Rabbah 98; Radak, Sherashim); or 'the law inscribing pen' (Hirsch).
|from his descendants|
(Targum). A euphemism, literally, 'from between his legs.' Others, 'the scribal pen will not depart from his lap' (Ibn Ezra), or 'the scribe will not depart from near his feet' (Bereshith Rabbah 98).
|submit to him|
(Targum; Ibn Ezra; Radak, Sherashim, s.v. Yikah; cf. Proverbs 30:17). Others, 'He will gather nations' (Ramban; Bereshith Rabbah 99); 'He will have a gathering of nations' (Rashi; Rashbam); or 'He will make nations gnash their teeth' (Bereshith Rabbah 99).
(Sforno; Torah Sh'lemah 157; cf. Jeremiah 12:1, Job 3:26). This may be seen as referring to the Messianic age. Others write that the Hebrew word shiloh here is from the root nashal, and translate the verse, 'until the exile comes' (Sh'muel ben Chofni; cf. Deuteronomy 7:1, 19:5, Job 27:8). Or, it can be taken as a form of she-lo (that which is his), and the verse is then rendered, 'until that which is [rightly] his comes' (Targum; Septuagint; Bereshith Rabbah 99; cf. Ezekiel 21:32). Or, it can be seen as two words shai lo (a gift to him), and the verse is, 'Until a gift is brought to him' (Rashi; Lekach Tov; cf. Isaiah 18:7). Or, shiloh can denote a special descendant; 'until he has a special descendant' (Targum Yonathan; Lekach Tov; Ibn Ezra; Ralbag Sh'muel ben Chofni; cf. Deuteronomy 28:57). Or, 'until it reaches its final nadir' (Hirsch). Others see Shiloh as a proper noun, possibly a name of the Messiah (Sanhedrin 98b; Bereshith Rabbah 99). Of course, Shiloh was also the name of the site of the Tabernacle before the Temple was built in Jerusalem (Joshua 18:1, 1 Samuel 1:3 etc.). Hence, some translate the verse, 'The scepter will not begin (yasar) in Judah....until Shiloh comes to an end' (Sekhel Tov; Ba'aley Tosafoth; Toledoth Yitzchak).
|He loads down...|
(Kethuvoth 111b; Rashi).