First Reading, Second Reading, Third Reading, Fourth Reading, Fifth Reading, Sixth Reading, Seventh Reading|
First Reading, Second Reading, Third Reading, Fourth Reading, Fifth Reading, Sixth Reading, Seventh Reading, Last Reading|
||Today, there must not be among you any man, woman, family or tribe, whose heart strays from God, and who goes and worships the gods of those nations. There must not be among you a root whose fruit is gall and wormwood.
Pen-yesh bachem ish o-ishah o mishpachah o-shevet asher levavo foneh hayom me'im Adonay Eloheynu lalechet la'avod et-Elohey hagoyim hahem pen-yesh bachem shoresh poreh rosh vela'anah.
(Septuagint; xole in Greek). Rosh in Hebrew; see Deuteronomy, 32:32, Jeremiah 9:14, Hosea 10:4, Psalms 69:22, Lamentations 3:19. Or, 'poison,' or 'venom' (Saadia; Radak, Sherashim; Bachya); cf. Deuteronomy, 32:33, Amos 6:12. Some sources identify rosh with hemlock (Conium maculatum), a dark poisonous plant. Others identify it with gall poppy (Papaver somniferum), a species of opium poppy that grows in the Holy Land. The person described can bring about the same mental confusion as opium.
Laanah in Hebrew; aklam in Arabic (Saadia; Ibn Janach), exenjos in Old Spanish (Radak, Sherashim). Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) is an herb yielding a bitter, dark green oil. A paradigm of bitterness, and hence translated merely as 'bitterness' (pikra) by the Septuagint.