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Lech Lecha

  
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 14:3
 14:4
 14:5
14:5 In the fourteenth year, Chedorlaomer and his allied kings came. They defeated the Rephaim in Ashteroth Karnaim, the Zuzim in Ham, the Emim in Shaveh Kiryathaim,
Uve'arba esreh shanah ba Chedarla'omer vehamelachim asher ito vayaku et-Refa'im be'Ashterot Karnayim ve'et- haZuzim beHam ve'et ha'Eymim beShaveh Kiryatayim.



Commentary:

Ashteroth Karnaim
  Ancient twin cities, some 22 miles east of the Sea of Galilee (Kinereth Sea), on what is now the Golan Heights. Actually Karnayim was a little over two miles northeast of Ashteroth. Later, Og lived near there (Joshua 9:10, 12:4, 13:12) in Edrei (Deuteronomy 1:4. Cf. Rashi on Deuteronomy 1:4). Ashteroth was also the name of a Sidonite deity (cf. 1 Kings 11:5 etc.). Karnayim literally means 'twin horns' (Radak).

Ham
  A city 14 miles to the east of the Jordan River, and 25 miles southwest of Ashteroth Karnayim. We thus see that the attackers were coming from the north and heading south. Some sources, however, render this verse, 'the Zuzim among them' (Bereshith Rabbah 42). This follows from Deuteronomy 2:20, where the Zuzim are identified with the Raphaim.

Shaveh Kiryathaim
  An ancient city, 8 miles east of the Dead Sea, 5 miles north of the Arnon River, and 67 miles south of Ham. It is literally, 'the plain of two cities.' It was on the frontier of Moab (Ezekiel 25:9; cf. Jeremiah 48:1,2,23,24). It later became part of Reuben's territory (Numbers 32:37, Joshua 13:19).

defeated
  Literally, 'struck.' It can also mean 'killed,' 'attacked,' or 'conquered.'

Rephaim
  The Targum has 'mighty ones,' or 'giants,' cf. Deuteronomy 2:11, 2:21. Their land was promised to Abraham (Genesis 15:20), and part of it was given to Lot's descendants (Deuteronomy 2:20). Og, a giant reputed to be over ten feet tall, was reputed to be one of the survivors of the Rephaim (Deuteronomy 3:11; Joshua 12:4, 13:12). Their land was later called Bashan, to the east of the Jordan (Deuteronomy 3:13). They were associated with the Perizites (Joshua 17:15, see Genesis 15:20). Some sources identify them with the Hivites (Bereshith Rabbah 44).

Zuzim
  These are identical with the Zumzumim of Deuteronomy 2:20 (Rashi). Zumzumim was the name given to this race of giants by the Amonites (Deuteronomy 2:20). The Targum renders it takifin, literally 'the powerful ones.'

Emim
  Literally, 'fearsome ones' (Targum), a name given to the Rephaim (giants) by the Moabites (Deuteronomy 2:11). They lived in what was later Moabite territory (see note on Genesis 14:5, 'Shaveh Kiryathaim' ).





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