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Emor

  
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 21:19
 21:20
21:20 who is a hunchback or a dwarf, who has a blemish in the eye, who has severe eczema or ringworm, or who has a hernia.
O-giben o-dak o tevalul be'eyno o garav o yalefet o mero'ach ashech.



Commentary:

hunchback
  (Sifra; Bekhoroth 43b; Saadia; Septuagint. Cf. Rambam on Bekhoroth 7:2; Ibn Janach, Radak, Sherashim). Gibben in Hebrew. Or, 'grossly fat' (Chizzkuni). According to others, the first three blemishes mentioned in this verse are in the eye, and gibben denotes a person with misformed eyebrows (cf. Ralbag). Some say that it denotes a person whose eyebrows are unusually long (Targum Yonathan; Bekhoroth 43b; Rashi; Ramban; Radak, Sherashim), or whose eyebrows are attached to each other (Bekhoroth 43b). Others say that it denotes one with missing eyebrows (Ibid.).

dwarf
  (Targum Yerushalmi; Ibn Ezra; Chizzkuni). Dak in Hebrew. Here too, some say that this is relating specifically to the eye. Some say that dak denotes a membrane or film over the eye, tella in Old French and Latin (Rashi; Radak, Sherashim; cf. Septuagint). Others say that it denotes a white spot on the pupil of the eye (Yad, Biyath HaMikdash 7:5; Ramban on Bekhoroth 6:2; Ralbag; cf. Bekhoroth 38b). Still others describe the dak as a loss of eyebrows (Targum Yonathan) or as droopy eyelids (Ibn Janach).

blemish
  (Chizzkuni). Te-bhalul in Hebrew. Some say that this specifically denotes one who has a streak of white going into the iris (Rashi; Targum Yonathan; Yad, Biyath HaMikdash 7:5; Bekhoroth 38a) or pupil (Ibn Janach; Radak, Sherashim) of the eye. Others see it as a growth in the eye (Saadia), or missing eyelashes (Septuagint). It also includes a case where the eyes focus in abnormal directions (Sifra; Bekhoroth 44a).

in the eye
  As we have seen, there is a question as to whether just one term modifies 'in the eye,' or if all three terms do. Thus, the verse can also be translated, 'Who has misshapen brows, a film, or a blemish in the eye.' Although there is a dispute as to the precise meaning of the words here, all the blemishes are known from tradition (Rambam on Bekhoroth 7:2).

severe eczema
  Or, 'a hard dry rash,' garav in Hebrew (Bekhoroth 41a; Saadia; Rashi). See Deuteronomy 28:27. Or, 'an itch' (Radak, Sherashim) or, 'a malignant skin ulcer' (Septuagint).

ringworm
  Yalefeth in Hebrew, leichen (lichen) in Greek (Septuagint). This is described as running sores, pimples or scabs (Bekhoroth 41a; Saadia; Rashi; Targum Yerushalmi).

hernia
  Or 'swollen testicles' (Targum Yonathan; Saadia). Meroach ashekh in Hebrew. Or, 'crushed testicles' (Targum; Rashi; Radak, Sherashim; Chizzkuni), or 'a missing testicle' (Septuagint; cf.Targum Yerushalmi). According to others, meroach ashekh denotes a person with abnormally dark skin coloration (Bekhoroth 44b; Rambam on Bekhoroth 7:5).





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