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Noach

  
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 10:17  10:18
 10:19
 10:20
10:17 the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites,
Ve'et-haChivi ve'et-ha'Arki ve'et-haSini.
10:18 the Arvadites, the Tzemarites, and the Chamathites. Later the families of the Canaanites became scattered.
Ve'et-ha'Arvadi ve'et-haTsmari ve'et-haChamati ve'achar nafotsu mishpechot haKna'ani.
10:19 The Canaanite borders extended from Sidon toward Gerar until Gaza, and toward Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Tzevoyim, until Lasha.
Vayehi gvul haKna'ani miTsidon boachah Gerarah ad-Azah boachah Sedomah va'Amorah ve'Admah uTsvo'im ad-Lasha.
10:20 These are the descendants of Ham, according to their families and languages, by their lands and nations.
Eleh veney-Cham lemishpechotam lileshonotam be'artsotam begoyehem.



Commentary:

Arkites
  They are identified as the residents of Arce, a city at the northwest foot of Mount Lebanon (Josephus; Bereshith Rabbah 37. Cf. Bekhoroth 57b).

Arvadites
  These are identified as the inhabitants of the island of Aradus on the Phoenician coast (Josephus; Yerushalmi, Megillah 1:9, Bereshith Rabbah 37). Others identify them with the town of Antridanai, that is, Antarados, a town opposite the island of Arados (Targum Yerushalmi). Another source identifies them with the Lutsai, probably the inhabitants of Arethusia, between Epiphania and Emasa.

Tzemarites
  Literally 'wool people,' possibly because they sold or worked with wool (Bereshith Rabbah 37). Talmudic sources render their area as Chametz, Chomtzia, Chamitai and Chumtzai (Targum Yonathan; Yerushalmi, Megillah 1:9, Bereshith Rabbah 37). This is identified with Emasa (the modern Hums) a city of Syria on the eastern bank of the Orontes River. See note on Genesis 36:36.

Chamathites
  This is to the north near Mount Hermon; Judges 3:3. Also see Numbers 13:21, 34:8, Amos 6:14, Ezekiel 47:17. It is on the Orontes River. Josephus states that it is the place called Amathe, although the Macedonians call it Ephania (cf. Bereshith Rabbah 37). It is also identified with Antioch (Targum Yonathan).

Gerar
  Capital of the Philistine nation, toward the south of the Holy Land, near the coast (Genesis 20:1, 26:1).

Gaza
  Aza in Hebrew. City on the south of Holy Land along the Mediterranean shore.

Gomorrah
  Amorah in Hebrew.

Hivites
  Chivi in Hebrew. They lived in the central part of the Holy Land near Shechem (Genesis 34:2). They also lived in Gibeon, and survived the conquest of the Holy Land (Joshua 9:3,7, 11:19). They lived in the north, near Mount Lebanon, from Hermon to Chamath (Judges 3:3). Some identify them with the people of Tripoli (Targum Yerushalmi). The Midrash apparently notes that they were cave dwellers (Chaldun; Bereshith Rabbah 37). They were also adept at testing soil by taste (Shabbath 85a, but see Tosefoth ad loc. s.v. Chivi). See note on Genesis 36:3.

Sinites
  (cf. Isaiah 49:12, Radak ad loc.). Josephus states that their identity is unknown. Others, however identify them with the Antusai (Targum Onkelos; Targum Yonathan; Bereshith Rabbah 37). This is most probably associated with the city of Orhosia, a Phoenician seaport, south of the Eleutheros River. Other sources identify the Sinites with the Kafruseans (Targum Yerushalmi).

Tzevoyim
  These four cities were in what is now the southern end of the Dead Sea (Genesis 14:2,3). They were destroyed by God for their wickedness (Genesis 19:24,25). These cities formed the southeast border of the Canaanite territory.

Lasha
  Or Lesha. This is identified with Caldahi (Targum Yonathan; Bereshith Rabbah 37). This is most probably Callirohoe, a resort city on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea.





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