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Genesis Noach
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10:9 He was a mighty trapper before God. There is thus a saying, 'Like Nimrod, a mighty trapper before God!'
Hu-hayah gibor-tsa'id lifney Adonay al-ken ye'amar keNimrod gibor tsa'id lifney Adonay.
10:10 The beginning of his kingdom was Babylon, along with Erekh, Akkad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.
Vatehi reshit mamlachto Bavel ve'Erech ve'Akad veChalneh be'erets Shin'ar.


  The Talmud identifies this as Nofar-Ninfi (Yoma 10a). This is Nippur, midway between Erekh and Babylon on the Euphrates River. It is the modern Niffer. Other sources identify it with Ctesphon, a city on the eastern bank of the Tigris (Targum Yonathan; Bereshith Rabbah 37).

  Babel or Babhel in Hebrew. See Genesis 11:9.

  See Ezra 4:9, Rashi ad loc. This was a city near Ur, on the lower Euphrates River. The Talmud (Yoma 10a) identifies it with Urikhuth, or Arkhath. This is identified with Uruk, an ancient name for Erekh. The Targum had Hadas, which may be identified with Edessa. The Midrash identifies it with Charan (Bereshith Rabbah 37).

  This was the royal city of Accad, which was the capital of northern Babylonia. The exact site of the city is unknown, although it was near Sippar, and about 30 miles north of Babylon. The Targum renders this as Netzivim (Targum Yonathan; Bereshith Rabbah 37). This was a city in the northeast end of Mesopotamia (cf. Shabbath 32b).

  Usually identified with Sumer. The Targum calls it the land of Pontus (Targum Yonathan). This is obviously not Pontus, which was a land to the south of the Black Sea. Rather, it is the Latin word pontus, meaning sea. Hence, Pontus was the 'land of the sea,' that is the land toward the Persian Gulf. See note on Genesis 14:1.

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