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  Ki Tisa
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28:40 For Aaron's sons, make tunics and sashes. Also make them hats that are both dignified and beautiful.
Velivney Aharon ta'aseh chutanot ve'asita lahem avnetim umigba'ot ta'aseh lahem lechavod ultif'aret.
28:41 Place these [vestments] on Aaron and his sons. Then anoint them, and install them, sanctifying them to be priests to Me.
Vehilbashta otam et-Aharon achicha ve'et-banav ito umashachta otam umileta et-yadam vekidashta otam vechihanu-li.


Aaron's sons
  These served as the common priests, as opposed to Aaron himself, who was High Priest. The tunic, sash and hat mentioned here, along with the pants (Exodus 28:42), were the vestments of the common priest.

  These were exactly the same as the tunic of the High Priest (Exodus 28:39; Yoma 12b; Yad, Kley HaMikdash 8:16; Ramban on Exodus 39:27; Josephus, Antiquities 3:7:4). Some, however, question whether or not the common priest's tunic was made with a textured pattern (tashbetz) like that of the High Priest (Ibn Ezra on Exodus 28:39; Mishneh LaMelekh, Kley HaMikdash 8:16).

  Some say that the sashes were exactly the same as that of the High Priest, while others maintain that the common priest's sash was of plain linen (Yoma 12b). Josephus (Antiquities 3:7:2) holds that they were the same.

  Migba'oth in Hebrew. Some say that this is exactly the same as the High Priest's turban (Rashi; cf. Yoma 25a, Tosafoth ad loc. s.v. Notel). Josephus also notes that both are the same, except that the High Priest's is covered with blue and a gold crown (see above). Others say that they are the same in form, but that the common priest's is put on, while the High Priest's is wound on (Yad, Kley HaMikdash 8:1).

According to others, however, the two differed in shape, with the turban of the High Priest being narrow, and the common priest's being wider (Tosafoth, Yoma 12b, s.v. Eleh; Ibn Ezra). Another opinion is that the High Priest's mitznefeth was a turban, while the migba'ath of the common priest was a conical hat (Raavad, Kley HaMikdash 8:1), shaped perhaps like an inverted goblet (cf. Ibn Janach).

According to others, the migba'ath was a cap that went under the turban, both for ordinary priests and the High Priest (Lekach Tov on Exodus 28:37). See Exodus 39:28.

  See Exodus 30:22-30.

  Literally, fill hands.' See Exodus 29:24.

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