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Deuteronomy Chapter 5
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Review of the Ten Commandments
5:1 Moses summoned all Israel, and said to them:

Listen, Israel, to the rules and laws that I am publicly declaring to you today. Learn them and safeguard them, so that you will be able to keep them.

5:2 God your Lord made a covenant with you at Horeb.
5:3 It was not with your ancestors that God made this covenant, but with us - those of us who are still alive here today.
5:4 On the mountain, God spoke to you face to face out of the fire.
5:5 I stood between you and God at that time, to tell you God's words, since you were afraid of the fire, and did not go up on the mountain.

[God then] declared [the Ten Commandments].


The First Two Commandments
5:6 I am God your Lord, who brought you out of Egypt, from the place of slavery.
5:7 Do not have any other gods before Me.
5:8 Do not represent [such gods] by a statue or picture of anything in the heaven above, on the earth below, or in the water below the land.
5:9 Do not bow down to [such gods] and do not worship them. I, God your Lord, am a god who demands exclusive worship. Where My enemies are concerned, I keep in mind the sin of the fathers for [their] descendants for three and four [generations].
5:10 But to those who love Me, and keep My commandments, I show love for thousands [of generations].

The Third Commandment
5:11 Do not take the name of God your Lord in vain. God will not allow the person who takes His name in vain to go unpunished.

The Fourth Commandment
5:12 Observe the Sabbath to keep it holy, as God your Lord commanded you.
5:13 You can work during the six weekdays, and do all your tasks,
5:14 but Saturday is the Sabbath to God your Lord, so do not do anything that constitutes work. [This includes] you, your son, your daughter, your male and female slave, your ox, your donkey, your [other] animals, and the foreigner who is in your gates.

Your male and female slaves will then be able to rest just as you do.

5:15 You must remember that you were slaves in Egypt, when God your Lord brought you out with a strong hand and an outstretched arm. It is for this reason that God your Lord has commanded you to keep the Sabbath.

The Fifth Commandment
5:16 Honor your father and mother as God your Lord commanded you. You will then live long and have it well on the land that God your Lord is giving you.

The Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth Commandments
5:17 Do not commit murder.

Do not commit adultery.

Do not steal.

Do not testify as a perjurous witness against your neighbor.


The Tenth Commandment
5:18 Do not desire your neighbor's wife.

Do not desire your neighbor's house, his field, his male or female slave, his ox, his donkey, or anything else that belongs to your neighbor.


After the Revelation
5:19 God spoke these words in a loud voice to your entire assembly from the mountain, out of the fire, cloud and mist, but He added no more. He wrote [these words] on two stone tablets, and [later] gave them to me.
5:20 When you heard the voice out of the darkness, with the mountain burning in flames, your tribal leaders and elders approached me.
5:21 You said, 'It is true that God our Lord has showed us His glory and greatness, and we have heard His voice out of the fire. Today we have seen that when God speaks to man, he can still survive.
5:22 But now, why should we die? Why should this great fire consume us? If we hear the voice of God our Lord any more, we will die!
5:23 'What mortal has heard the voice of the living God speaking out of fire as we did and has survived?
5:24 You approach God our Lord, and listen to all He says. You can transmit to us whatever God our Lord tells you, and when we hear it, we will do it.'
5:25 God heard what you said, and God told me, 'I have heard what this nation has said to you. They have spoken well.
5:26 If only their hearts would always remain this way, where they are in such awe of Me. They would then keep all My commandments for all time, so that it would go well with them and their children forever.
5:27 'Go tell them to return to their tents.
5:28 You, however, must remain here with Me. I will declare to you all the rules and laws that you shall teach them, so they will keep them in the land that I am giving them to occupy.'
5:29 Be careful to do what God your Lord has commanded you, not turning to the right or left.
5:30 Follow the entire way that God your Lord has commanded you, so that you may live and do well, enduring for a long time on the land that you are going to occupy.



Commentary:

summoned
  To repeat the Ten Commandments to the younger generation that had not been at Sinai (Chizzkuni; cf. Bachya).

publicly
  Literally, 'in your ears.' See Genesis 20:8, 23:10.

covenant
  See Exodus 19:5, 24:8, 34:27 (cf. Lekach Tov). Also see Deuteronomy 4:23, 28:69.

face to face
  See Exodus 33:11 (Bachya).

you were afraid
  See Exodus 20:15,16.

the Ten Commandments
  Given earlier in Deuteronomy 20:2-14.

Observe
  Or, 'safeguard.' 'Remember' in Exodus 20:8. The earlier generation had experienced the Sabbath with the Manna (Exodus 16:26), and therefore merely had to remember it. However, the generation that would enter the promised land, whom Moses was addressing, would henceforth have to 'safeguard' the Sabbath (cf. Chizzkuni). According to tradition, the Ten Commandments were given prophetically, and at Sinai the people heard the words 'remember' and 'observe' simultaneously (Mekhilta on Exodus 20:8; Rashi).

as God...commanded you
  At Sinai (Ibn Ezra; Bachya; Tur). Or, according to tradition, at Marah (Sanhedrin 56b; Rashi; See Exodus 15:25).

as God... commanded you
  See note Deuteronomy 5:12.

but He added no more
  (Chizzkuni; Septuagint; cf. Ibn Ezra). Or, 'in a loud voice that did not hesitate' (Targum; Rashi). See Numbers 11:25.

If only their hearts...
  Here we see what absolute free will God gives man (Bachya). That generation was therefore called 'the enlightened generation,' dor de'ah in Hebrew (Lekach Tov).

to
  Actually a direct quotation.

return to their tents
  A euphemism for marital relations (Betza 5b; see Exodus 19:15).

remain here with Me
  Indicating that Moses would henceforth always remain on the level of prophecy (Yad, Yesodey HaTorah 7:6; cf. Shabbath 87a).





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