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Leviticus Chapter 2
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The Meal Offering
2:1 If an individual presents a meal offering to God, his offering must consist of the best grade of wheat meal. On it, he shall pour olive oil and place frankincense.
2:2 He shall bring it to the priests who are Aaron's descendants, and [a priest] shall scoop out three fingers full of its meal and oil, [and then take] all the frankincense. The priest shall then burn [this] memorial portion on the altar as a fire offering, an appeasing fragrance to God.
2:3 The rest of the meal offering shall belong to Aaron and his descendants. It is holy of holies among the fire offerings to God.

The Baked Offering
2:4 If he brings a meal offering that was baked in an oven, it shall consist [either] of unleavened loaves made of wheat meal mixed with olive oil, or flat matzahs saturated with olive oil.

The Pan Offering
2:5 If the sacrifice is a pan fried offering, it shall be made of wheat meal mixed with olive oil, and it shall remain unleavened.
2:6 Break it into little pieces, and pour olive oil on it. [In this respect] it is [like every other] meal offering.

The Deep Fried Offering
2:7 If your sacrifice is a meal offering prepared in a deep pot, it shall be made of wheat meal in olive oil.
2:8 You may thus bring a meal offering in any of these ways [as an offering] to God. It shall be presented to the priest and brought to the altar.
2:9 The priest shall then lift out the memorial portion from the meal offering, and burn it on the altar. It is a fire offering, an appeasing fragrance to God.
2:10 The remainder of the meal offering then belongs to Aaron and his descendants. It is holy of holies, one of God's fire offerings.
2:11 Do not make any meal offering that is sacrificed to God out of leavened dough. This is because you may not burn anything fermented or sweet as a fire offering to God.
2:12 Although these may be brought as a first-fruit offering to God, they may not be offered on the altar as an appeasing fragrance.
2:13 Moreover, you must salt every meal offering. Do not leave out the salt of your God's covenant from your meal offerings. [Furthermore,] you must [also] offer salt with your animal sacrifices.

The First Grain Offering
2:14 When you bring an offering of the first grain, it should be [brought] as soon as it ripens on the stalk. Your first grain offering shall consist of fresh kernels [of barley], roasted in a perforated pan, [and then ground into] coarse meal.
2:15 Place olive oil and frankincense on it, just like for any other meal offering.
2:16 As a fire offering to God, the priest shall then burn the memorial portion taken from its coarse meal and oil, as well as all its frankincense.



Commentary:

meal offering
  Minchah in Hebrew. See Genesis 4:3. Some say that it comes from the root nachah denoting lowness, and thus translating it 'homage gift' (Hirsch; HaKethav VeHaKabbalah; cf. Genesis 32:14). It can also be related to the word nicho'ach, see Leviticus 1:9. Or, it can come from the root nachah in the sense that it denotes rest; hence a minchah can denote an 'inanimate offering,' an offering taken from the vegetable kingdom.

wheat meal
  Soleth in Hebrew. This was wheat meal (Sifra; Rashi; from Exodus 29:2). It was the best grade of meal, perfectly clean of all bran (Saadia; Ibn Ezra; cf. Kiddushin 69b). The soleth used for meal offerings was a coarsely ground meal (Rashi, Menachoth 66a, s.v. Shel Gerosoth; Radak, Sherashim, from Avoth 5:15, cf. Meiri ad loc.) It had to be carefully sifted to remove all the fine flour (Menachoth 85a; Yad, Issurey HaMizbeach 6:12).

The amount of such an offering was 1/10 ephah or around 2 quarts (Rashi; Yad, Maaseh HaKorbanoth 13:3).

olive oil
  At least 1 log (300 cc. or 10 fl. oz.) (Menachoth 51a, 88a; Yad, Maaseh HaKorbanoth 13:7, Ralbag).

frankincense
  Levonah in Hebrew. See Exodus 30:34. The amount of frankincense placed on the offering was one handful (Sifra; Yad, Maaseh HaKorbanoth 13:7).

three fingers full
  The priest scooped out the flour with the three middle fingers of the hand, using the thumb and pinky to rub off any flour sticking out at the ends (Menachoth 11a. Rashi; Radak, Sherashim). According to others, however, the kemitzah was a complete handful ( Yad, Maaseh HaKorbanoth 13:13, see Kesef Mishneh ad loc.; Ralbag). The priest would have to scoop up at least an amount the size of two olives (around 100 c.c. or 3 1/2 fl. oz.) (Yad, loc.cit.).

Before scooping up the flour, the frankincense would be put to the side, so that only flour and oil would be scooped up (Sotah 14b; Yad, Maaseh HaKorbanoth 13:12).

Scooping the portion from a meal offering was in place of slaughter of an animal (Rambam on Menachoth 1:1).

and then take...
  The frankincense would then be removed separately, and placed on the scooped flour (Ibid.; Rashi; Sifra).

memorial portion
  (Ibn Ezra; Radak, Sherashim). Azkarah in Hebrew. Or, 'burned portion' (Saadia, from Psalms 20:4; cf. Ibn Janach).

loaves
  Challoth in Hebrew. This denotes thick, and possibly round, loaves (Ibn Ezra). See note on Leviticus 2:6.

mixed with olive oil
  Together with warm water ( Yad, Maaseh HaKorbanoth 13:8). All meal offerings were kneaded with warm water (Menachoth 55a; Yad, Maaseh HaKorbanoth 12:21) Some say that this made a better quality loaf (Tifereth Yisrael, Menachoth 5:8), especially since the offerings were made with coarse meal. According to others, warm water was used so that additional care would be taken that the offering not begin to ferment (Likutey Halakhoth, Zevach Todah, Menachoth, p. 22a,b; Metzafeh Ethan on Menachoth 53a; cf. Rashi, Menachoth 53a, s.v. Menayin).

or
  (Menachoth 63a; Rashi). Literally 'and.'

saturated
  Literally, 'anointed.' A log (10 oz.) of oil was taken, and rubbed on the unperforated matzahs until it was all absorbed (Yad, Maaseh HaKorbanoth 13:9). According to others, the matzahs were anointed with the oil in the form of an X (see Exodus 29:7), and the rest of the oil could be consumed by the priests (cf. Rashi; Menachoth 74b, 75a).

Some say that the matzahs were oiled after they were baked (Yad, Maaseh HaKorbanoth 13:8), but others question this and state that they may have been oiled before baking (Ralbag).

pan fried...
  Literally, 'meal offering on a pan' (see Menachoth 63a; Rashi.) Machbath in Hebrew. Cf. Ezekiel 4:3. The oil was first placed in the pan (2:7), and then the meal was placed on it. More oil was then mixed with the meal, and it was kneaded with warm water (Yad, Maaseh HaKorbanoth 13:6; cf. Rashi, Menachoth 74b, s.v. Matan Shemen).

Break it...
  In all these offerings, the 1/10 ephah of flour was baked into ten loaves (Menachoth 76a; Yad, Maaseh HaKorbanoth 13:10; Rashi). Each of these loaves would then be broken into four pieces, each approximately the size of an olive (Sifra; Menachoth 75a,b; Yad, loc. cit.). Some say that any pieces larger than olive size must be broken up further (Rashi, Menachoth 75b; Rambam on Menachoth 6:4).

In this respect...
  This was done to all meal offerings that were baked or fried (Menachoth 75a; Rashi; Yad, Maaseh HaKorbanoth 13:6).

deep pot
  (Rashi; Menachoth 63a; Saadia). Marchesheth in Hebrew.

in olive oil
  Oil was placed in the pot first (Menachoth 74b, 75a).

these ways
  Baked in an oven, on a pan, or in a deep pot (Rashi).

lift out
  Or, 'raise to a higher status.' Harem in Hebrew, related to the word terumah. See Leviticus 6:8. After the loaf was broken into pieces (Leviticus 2:6), the priest would scoop out three fingers full as Leviticus 2:2 (Menachoth 61a; Rashi).

fermented
  Or 'leavened' (cf. Ibn Ezra).

sweet
  Devash in Hebrew, usually translated as honey. Here it denotes any fruit juice (Rashi), especially date extract (Rashbam; cf. Menachoth 84a; Yerushalmi, Bikkurim 1:3). Others, however, take this literally to mean honey (Yad, Issurey HaMizbeach 5:1; Mishneh LaMelekh ad loc.; Sefer Hamitzvoth, Negative 98; cf. Makhshirim 6:4).

first-fruit offering
  Which was not offered on the altar (Menachoth 84b; Rashi). See Leviticus 23:17, Numbers 28:26 (Sifra).

you must [also] offer salt...
  That is, the sacrifices were salted before being placed on the altar (Menachoth 21a,b; Yad, Issurey HaMizbeach 5:11). See Numbers 18:19.

first grain
  This was the omer, mentioned in Leviticus 23:10-14 (Menachoth 68b, 84a; Yad, Temidim 7:12; Rashi).

as soon as it ripens...
  (Radak, Sherashim; Hirsch). Aviv in Hebrew. Some say that it denotes barley (Menachoth 61b; cf. Exodus 9:31), especially when it is ripe enough to be eaten (Saadia; Ibn Janach). According to others, it refers to the early grain (Rashi, Menachoth 66a, s.v. aviv). Still others maintain that it denotes grain roasted in a perforated vessel (Targum Yonathan; cf. Menachoth 66a; Yad, Tamidim 7:22).

fresh kernels
  Karmel in Hebrew. (Menachoth 84a; see Rashi, Menachoth 64b, s.v. Karmel; Yad, Temidim 7:9). These were grains that were not yet dry and hard (Menachoth 66b; Rashi; Radak, Sherashim).

of barley
  (see Yad, Temidim 7:11; see earlier notes).

roasted in...
  (Menachoth 66b; Rashi; Yad, Temidim 7:12). Kaluy in Hebrew.

and then
  (Menachoth 66b; Yad, Temidim 7:12).

ground into coarse meal
  (Rashi 66a, s.v. Ve-gerusaoth;) or 'cracked grains' (Saadia; Radak, Sherashim; Ibn Janach). This was the best grade of barley meal, equivalent to soleth made of wheat (Rashi, Menachoth 66a, s.v. Shel Gerosoth, 27a s.v. Geresh, 69b s.v. Ve-Lo; Sotah 14a).





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