Consecration of the Priests
||This is what you, [Moses] must do to consecrate [Aaron and his sons] as priests to Me.
Take a young bull, two unblemished rams,
||loaves of unleavened bread, unleavened loaves kneaded with olive oil, and flat matzahs brushed with olive oil. All [the cakes] must be made of fine wheat flour.
||Place [all the cakes] in a basket, and bring them in the basket along with the young bull and two rams.
||Bring Aaron and his sons to the door of the Communion Tent, and immerse them in a mikvah.
||Take the vestments and place the tunic, the ephod's robe, the ephod and the breastplate on Aaron. Bind him with the ephod's belt.
||Then place the turban on his head, and place the sacred plate [below] the turban.
||Take the anointing oil, pour [a little] on [Aaron's] head, and anoint him.
||Bring forth [Aaron's] sons and dress them with the [linen] tunics.
||His sons shall wear belts, just like Aaron, and they shall also wear hats.
You shall thus install Aaron and his sons [as priests, and this procedure] shall remain a law for all time.
||Bring the young bull before the Communion Tent, and have Aaron and his sons place their hands on the bull's head.
||Slaughter the bull before God, at the door of the Communion Tent.
||Take the bull's blood and place it on the altar's protrusions with your finger. Spill all the [remaining] blood on the altar's foundation.
||Take all the fat that covers the inner organs, as well as the lobe of the liver, and the two kidneys with the fat around them, and burn them on the altar.
||You must burn the bull's flesh, along with its skin and the food in its intestines, outside the camp. It is a sin offering.
||Take the first ram and have Aaron and his sons place their hands on its head.
||When you then slaughter the ram, take its blood and sprinkle it on all sides of the altar.
||Cut the ram into pieces. Then wash off its intestines and legs, and place them together with the cut up pieces [of the ram] and its head.
||Burn the entire ram on the altar; it is a burnt offering to God. It shall thus be an appeasing fragrance, a fire-offering to God.
||Take the second ram, and have Aaron and his sons place their hands on its head.
||When you then slaughter the ram, take its blood and place some of it on the right ear lobe of Aaron and his sons, as well as on their right thumbs and right big toes. Sprinkle the [remaining] blood on all sides of the altar.
||Collect the blood that is on the altar, and [together] with the anointing oil, sprinkle it on Aaron and his vestments, as well as on his sons and their vestments. This will consecrate [Aaron] and his vestments, as well as his sons and their vestments.
||Take the [intestinal] fat of the [second] ram, along with its broad tail, the fatty layer covering the stomachs, the lobe of the liver, the two kidneys together with their fat, and the right hind leg, since this ram is an installation [offering].
||[Also take] one cake of [unleavened] bread, one loaf of oil bread, and one flat cake from the basket of unleavened bread that is before God.
||Place all [these items] onto the open hands of Aaron and his sons, and have them wave [these items] in the prescribed motions of a wave offering before God.
||Then take [these items] from their hands and burn them on the altar after the [first ram which is a] burnt offering. Let it be an appeasing fragrance before God, since it is a fire offering to God.
||Take the breast of Aaron's installation ram, and wave it in the motions prescribed for a wave offering. This shall be your portion, [Moses].
||Sanctify the breast of the wave offering and the hind leg of the uplifted offering [for all time]. These are the parts of the installation ram of Aaron and his sons that were waved with the prescribed horizontal and vertical motions.
||It shall be a law for all times that this be an offering for Aaron and his sons from the Israelites, taken from their peace offerings as a priestly offering to God.
||Aaron's sacred vestments shall [also] be passed down to his descendants after him to give them special status and to install them.
||The descendant who takes [Aaron's] place to enter the Communion Tent and perform the divine service in the [inner] sanctuary must [first] put on [these vestments] for seven [consecutive] days.
||Take the [rest of the] installation ram and cook its flesh in a sanctified area.
||Aaron and his sons shall eat the ram's meat along with the bread in the basket near the entrance of the Communion Tent.
||They will gain atonement by eating [these offerings], and they will thus be installed to their consecrated rank.
[These offerings] are sacred, and therefore may not be eaten by any outsider.
||If any meat of the installation offering or any of the bread is left over until morning, you must burn the leftovers in the fire. Since it is consecrated, it may not be eaten.
||Do exactly as I have instructed you for Aaron and his sons. Their installation shall take seven days.
||Sacrifice a young bull as a sin offering each day for atonement. By sprinkling [the blood of this offering] on the altar, you will atone for [any misdeed associated with making] it, and by anointing it you will sanctify it.
||For [all] seven days, you shall make such atonement for the altar and sanctify it, thus making the altar holy of holies. Anything that touches the altar will therefore become sanctified.
Consecrating the Altar
||This is what you must do for the altar:
[Offer] two yearling sheep each day consecutively.
||The first sheep shall be offered in the morning, and the second sheep in the afternoon.
||Offer 1/10 ephah fine flour mixed with 1/4 hin pressed olive oil, and a libation of 1/4 hin wine, with the first sheep.
||Offer the second sheep in the afternoon along with a meal offering and libation just like that of [the sheep] offered in the morning. It shall then be an appeasing fragrance to God.
||This shall also be the continual burnt offering for all generations. [It shall be offered] before God at the entrance of the Communion Tent, the place where I commune with [all the people] by speaking with you there.
||It is there that I will commune with the Israelites, and [the tabernacle] will thus be sanctified with My glory.
||I will sanctify the Communion Tent and the altar, and I will also sanctify Aaron and his sons to be priests to Me.
||I will make My presence felt among the Israelites, and I will be a God for them.
||They will realize that I, God their Lord, brought them out of Egypt to make My presence felt among them. I am God their Lord.
In its second year (Parah 1:2; Yad, Maaseh Korbanoth 1:14). See Leviticus 8:2.
Also in their second year (Parah 1:3).
This is the revukhah or murbekheth mentioned in Leviticus 7:12 (Rashi; Menachoth 78a). It consists of dough, cooked in boiling water, baked, and then fried (Yad, Maaseh Korbanoth 9:19; Sifra on Leviticus 7:12). See Leviticus 6:14.
These were loaves kneaded with warm water and olive oil (Yad, Maaseh Korbanoth 13:8).
Brushed with oil after baking (Yad, loc. cit.).
Rashi; Targum Yonathan; Midrash HaGadol; cf. Josephus, Antiquities 3:8:6). See note on Exodus 19:10; Leviticus 15:16.
A specially constructed pool containing 40 sa'ah (80 gallons) of water (Targum Yonathan). The Torah here literally says, 'he shall wash in the water,' indicating the special water of the mikvah (Rashi, Chagigah 11a, s.v. BaMayim).
After pouring the oil on the priest's head, he would make an X-like mark with it on the priest's forehead (Kerithoth 5b; Yad, Kley HaMikdash 1:9; see Tifereth Yisrael on Zevachim 10:6; Torah Sh'lemah 23:194 ff.).
|just like Aaron|
See note on Exodus 28:40.
See Leviticus 8:14 ff.
Or 'horns.' See Exodus 27:2. This is standard procedure for a sin offering (Leviticus 4:30).
This was a slight protrusion a cubit above the ground (Rashi; Zevachim 59b).
|all the fat...|
That is, all the fat in the body cavity (Rambam, introduction to Kadshim). See Leviticus 3:3.
(Ibid.; Septuagint; Abarbanel; Sefer HaIttur 2, Asereth HaDibroth 44, p. 3b). Or, 'the Diaphragm along with some of the liver' (Targum; Rashi; Radak, Sherashim; HaKethav VeHaKabbalah). These were the usual parts burnt with such an offering; Leviticus 3:4, etc.
|food in its intestines|
(Radak, Sherashim). Peresh in Hebrew. (cf. Targum; Targum Yonathan).
This is done by sprinkling blood on the two opposite corners of the altar, so that the blood reaches all four sides of the altar (Rashi). See Leviticus 1:5.
See Leviticus 1:9, 1:13.
(Targum Yonathan). Or, 'body cavity' (Targum).
See Leviticus 1:3 ff.
See note on Genesis 8:21.
The helix or upper part of the ear (Targum; Midrash HaGadol). See Leviticus 8:24, 14:14.
On the middle joint (Rashi). See Leviticus 8:24.
The fat on the stomachs. See Leviticus 3:3.
On sheep, the tail grows long and very fat.
See Leviticus 3:3.
It is offered like a peace offering, see Leviticus 3.
See Exodus 29:2.
It is waved back and forth in the four compass directions, and then up and down (Menachoth 62a; Rashi). Some say that the order, with the individual facing east, is right, left, front, up, down, back.
(Rashi; Mizrachi). Literally, 'on.'
Terumah in Hebrew, the usual word for the offering given to priests.
|horizontal and vertical|
|taken from their peace offerings...|
See Leviticus 7:31,32.
That is, future high priests (Rashi).
|to give them special status|
Targum; Rashi). Or, 'to anoint them in' (Saadia; Radak, Sherashim).
(Yad, Kley HaMikdash 4:13).
The enclosure around the tabernacle (Rashi).
During which they may not leave the enclosure (Leviticus 8:35).
See Leviticus 4.
(Ibn Ezra; Lekach Tov; Ralbag). Cf. Ezekiel 43:22.
(Rashi). Or 'atoning' (Radak, Sherashim).
|for any misdeed...|
Around 2 quarts (2.2 liters).
Around 1 quart.
|for all generations|
See Numbers 28:2-8.
See Exodus 25:22.
|all the people|
Literally, 'you' in plural.
Some say that prophecy could also come from the altar, just as from between the cherubs (Bareitha Melekheth HaMishkan 14). Simply, however, this is speaking of the tabernacle in general.
(Rashi; Ibn Ezra).
|make My presence felt|
(Moreh Nevukhim 1:25). Literally, 'dwell.'