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Deuteronomy Chapter 24
Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
Subjects
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Divorce and Remarriage
24:1 When a man marries a woman or possesses her, if she is displeasing to him [or] if he has evidence of sexual misconduct on her part, he shall write her a bill of divorce and place it in her hand, thus releasing her from his household.
24:2 When she thus leaves his household, she may go and marry another man.
24:3 However, if her second husband hates her, and therefore writes her a bill of divorce, placing it in her hand and releasing her from his household, or if her second husband dies,
24:4 then her first husband who divorced her cannot remarry her, since she is now forbidden to him. To do so would be repulsive to God, and you must not bring immorality to the land that God your Lord is giving you as a heritage.

The New Bridegroom; The Millstone
24:5 When a man takes a new bride, he shall not enter military service or be assigned to any associated duty. He must remain free for his family for one year, when he can rejoice with his bride.
24:6 Do not take an upper or lower millstone as security for a loan, since that is like taking a life as security.

Kidnapping
24:7 If a man kidnaps a fellow Israelite, forces him to serve and then sells him, when the kidnapper is caught, he shall be put to death. You shall thus rid yourself of the evil in your midst.

Leprosy
24:8 Be careful with regard to leprous signs and carefully keep [the rules]. Be very careful to do all that the Levitical priests decide for you, as I have commanded them.
24:9 Remember what God did to Miriam on your way out of Egypt.

Security for Loans
24:10 When you make any kind of loan to your neighbor, do not go into his house to take something as security.
24:11 You must stand outside, and the man who has the debt to you shall bring the security outside to you.
24:12 If the man is poor, you may not go to sleep holding his security.
24:13 Return it to him at sundown, so that he will be able to sleep in his garment and bless you. You will then have charitable merit before God your Lord.

Paying Wages on Time
24:14 Do not withhold the wages due to your poor or destitute hired hand, whether he is one of your brethren or a proselyte living in a settlement in your land.
24:15 You must give him his wage on the day it is due, and not let the sun set with him waiting for it. Since he is a poor man, and his life depends on it, do not let him call out to God, causing you to have a sin.

Testimony of Close Relatives
24:16 Fathers shall not die [through the testimony] of their sons, and sons shall not die [through the testimony] of their fathers, since [in any case] every man shall die for his sins.

Widows and Orphans
24:17 Do not pervert justice for the proselyte or orphan.
Do not take a widow's garment as security for a loan.
24:18 You must remember that you were a slave in Egypt, and God your Lord then liberated you. It is for that reason that I am commanding you to do this.

Forgotten Sheaves
24:19 When you reap your grain harvest and forget a sheaf in the field, you must not go back to get it. It must be left for the foreigner, orphan and widow, so that God your Lord will bless you, no matter what you do.

Leftover Fruit
24:20 When you beat the fruit from your olive tree, do not pick the last remaining fruit, since it must be left for the foreigner, orphan and widow.
24:21 When you gather the grapes in your vineyard, do not strip the last grapes, but let them remain for the foreigner, orphan and widow.
24:22 I am commanding you to do this because you must remember that you were a slave in Egypt.



Commentary:

or possesses her
  For the purpose of marriage (Bachya).

or if he has evidence
  (Saadia; cf. Gittin 90a).

sexual misconduct...
  In which case he must divorce her. Or, 'immodesty' (Gittin 90b).

bill of divorce
  Get in Aramaic (Targum).

forbidden
  (HaKethav VeHaKabbalah). Literally, 'defiled.' Or, '[The same is true] if she is defiled to him [by committing adultery]' (Rashi; Bachya; Sotah 11b).

with...
  (Targum Yonathan). Or, 'he shall gladden his wife' (Targum; Rashi; Septuagint).

kidnaps...
  See Exodus 21:16.

forces him to serve
  (Sanhedrin 85b; Rashi; Yad, Genevah 9:3). Hith-amer in Hebrew; see Deuteronomy, 21:14. Or, 'does business' (Targum).

Be careful...
  This is a specific prohibition against removing a leprous sign from one's body (Sanhedrin 132b; Makkoth 22a). It also mandates that one abide by the priest's decision, and maintain the quarantine (Abarbanel). Some say that it is also a commandment to the priest not to give anyone special consideration, just as Miriam was not given any such consideration (Baaley Tosafoth; Chizzkuni).

Levitical priests
  See Leviticus 13:9, etc.

to Miriam
  Numbers 12:10. Despite her high status (Ralbag). This is a specific commandment to refrain from such slander as that committed by Miriam (Numbers 12:1; Sifri; Ramban). It also tells us not to suspect religious leaders (Midrash HaGadol).

proselyte
  (Bava Metzia 110a; Rashi).

give him his wage...
  See Leviticus 19:13.

through the testimony
  (Sanhedrin 27b; Rashi; Sefer HaMitzvoth, Negative 287). In a literal sense, also, that the courts should not punish a parent for a child's crime (Ralbag).

since in any case
  (Rashbam). That is, even if they are not punished by the courts.

proselyte
  (Ralbag).

or orphan
  See Exodus 23:6.

widow's
  Some say that this same law also applies to a divorcee (Sema, Choshen Mishpat 97:22; cf. Shakh 97:1).

garment
  Some say only a garment (Shiltey Gibborim, Rif, Bava Metzia 70a #2), while others say that it includes all articles (Chinukh 591; cf. Pith'chey Teshuvah, Chosen Mishpat 97:2).

When you reap
  See Leviticus 19:9,10, 23:22.

beat
  (Saadia; Radak, Sherashim). Chabat in Hebrew. Or, 'gather' (Septuagint).

pick the last remaining fruit
  (Rashi; from Chullin 131b; HaKethav VeHaKabbalah). Pa'ar in Hebrew. Or, 'do not remove the highest branch' or 'crown' (Radak, Sherashim; Hirsch); 'do not re-inspect it' (Targum; Septuagint); 'do not carefully pick it over' (Targum Yonathan; Saadia; Ibn Janach); 'do not harvest the smaller branches' (Ibn Ezra; Radak, Sherashim; Ibn Janach), or, 'Do not go back over it' (Yad, Matnoth Aniyim 1:6). If only two clusters of olives remain on a branch, it is forbidden to go back and harvest them (Yad, Matnoth Aniyim 5:15).

do not strip...
  (Chullin 131a; cf. Yad, Matnoth Aniyim 5:16). Alal in Hebrew. Or, 'do not glean' (Saadia; Septuagint), or, 'do not pick immature clusters (Sifri; Rashi; Josephus, Antiquities 4:8:21).





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