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Leviticus Chapter 24
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Deuteronomy

The Lamp
24:1 God spoke to Moses, telling him to
24:2 instruct the Israelites to bring him clear illuminating oil from hand-crushed olives, to keep the lamp burning constantly.
24:3 Aaron shall light [the lamp] consistently with [this oil]. [It shall burn] before God, from evening to morning, outside the cloth partition in the Communion Tent. This shall be an eternal law for all your generations.
24:4 He shall consistently kindle the lamps on the pure [gold] menorah before God.

The Showbread
24:5 You shall take the finest grade of wheat flour and bake it into twelve loaves. Each loaf shall contain two-tenths [of an ephah].
24:6 Arrange [these loaves] in two stacks, six loaves to each stack. This shall be on the undefiled table which is before God.
24:7 Place pure frankincense alongside these stacks. This will be the memorial portion [presented as] a fire offering to God.
24:8 [These loaves] shall consistently be arranged before God each Sabbath. It is an eternal covenant that this must come from the Israelites.
24:9 The [bread] shall be given to Aaron and his descendants, but since it is holy of holies among God's fire offerings, they must eat it in a sanctified area. This is an eternal law.

The Blasphemer
24:10 The son of an Israelite woman and an Egyptian man went out among the Israelites and the Israelite woman's son had a quarrel with an Israelite man in the camp.
24:11 The Israelite woman's son then blasphemed God's name with a curse. The [people] brought him to Moses. His mother's name was Shelomith daughter of Divri, of the tribe of Dan.
24:12 They kept him under custody until the penalty could be specified by God.

Penalties for Blasphemy
24:13 God spoke to Moses, saying:
24:14 Take the blasphemer out of the camp, and let all who heard him place their hands on his head. The entire community shall then stone him to death.
24:15 Speak to the Israelites as follows:

Anyone who curses God shall bear his sin.

24:16 But if one actually blasphemes the name YHVH, he shall be put to death. The entire community shall stone him. Whether he is a proselyte or a native born [Israelite], he shall be put to death.
24:17 One who takes a human life must be put to death.
24:18 If one kills an animal, he must pay for it, [the value of] a life for a life.
24:19 If one maims his neighbor, he must be penalized accordingly.
24:20 Thus, full compensation must be paid for a fracture or the loss of an eye or a tooth. If one inflicts injury on another person, he must [pay as if the same injury were] inflicted on him.
24:21 Thus, if one kills an animal, he must pay for it, but if one kills a human being, he must be put to death.
24:22 There shall be one law for you, for both the proselyte and the native born, for I am God, Lord of you [all].
24:23 Moses related [all] this to the Israelites, and they took the blasphemer out of the camp, pelting him to death with stones. The Israelites thus did as God had commanded Moses.



Commentary:

him
  Literally, 'you.'

clear illuminating oil...
  See Exodus 27:20.

two-tenths...
  Around one gallon.

on the undefiled table
  See Exodus 25:30.

frankincense
  See Exodus 30:34. This was placed in a bowl; see Exodus 25:29. There were three fingers full (a kometz) of this incense (Yad, Temidim 5:2).

alongside
  (Menachoth 97a; Yad, Temidim 5:2). Literally, 'on.'

memorial portion
  Azkara in Hebrew; see Leviticus 2:9. Only the frankincense was burnt; the breads were eaten by the priests.

Egyptian man
  This was the Egyptian who killed the Israelite (Exodus 2:11) and then took his wife (Rashi).

went out
  This happened at the same time that a man was found gathering wood in Numbers 15:32 (Sifra; Chizzkuni).

had a quarrel
  Since he wanted to camp with the Danites (Sifra; Tanchuma 24).

blasphemed
  (Saadia; Radak, Sherashim; cf. 24:15). Nakav in Hebrew. Or, 'pronounced' (Targum; Rashi).

YHVH
  The Tetragrammaton, which may not be pronounced (see Yad, Avodath Kokhavim 2:7).

proselyte
  However, this is a prohibition for which even a gentile can be put to death, and hence, ger can be translated as 'foreigner.'

the value of
  (obvious from context).

penalized accordingly
  Idiomatically expressed as, 'as he did, so shall be done to him.'

full compensation...
  See Exodus 21:24,25.

pay as if...
  (Rashi; Bava Kama 84a). That is, one must pay the amount a person would to avoid such an injury.





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